Penicillium diagram

General characteristics

  1. Penicillium is commonly known as "blue mold" or "green mold".
  2. Hyphae are colored due the presence of pigment present in walls.
  3. From the hyphae, erect, branched and tubular conidiophores grow into the air.
  4. Conidiophores branch repeatedly producing small "penicillus" (for Brush in Latin).
  5. The ultimate branches, which are flask-shaped called as "sterigmata" or "phialides".
  6. The branches supporting sterigmata are called as "Metullae".
  7. Basipetal chains of conidia are born on sterigmata.
  8. Conidia are tiny, uninucleate, unicellular, globose, solid and elliptical.

Economic importance

  1. Penicillium is used in production of
    1. Fumaric acid
    2. Oxalic acid
    3. Citric acid
  2. Antibiotic "Penicillin" and "Griseofulvin" are obtained from P. chrysogenum and P. griseofulvum respectively.
  3. P. camemberti and P. roqueforti are used in flavoring cheese.
  4. Penicillium damages leather goods, fabrics, wood products and walls.
  5. Mycotoxins and Ochratoxins are produced on cereal grains by P. viridicatum.

Content first created on 03-12-2022
last updated on 06-12-2022