Blossom-end (styler end) rot of bottle gourd

Host: Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd/lauki/calabash/doodhi)


Blossom-end rot (styler end rot) is a deficiency disorder commonly seen during the end of the growing season. Blossom end or styler end of the fruit are rotten, which progress towards the pedicel of the fruit, thus whole fruit die.
The disorder is caused by deficiency of calcium in the soil. It may arise either in the calcium-deficient soil or may arise under or over-watering conditions. Heavy nitrogen fertilizer application is also reported to cause calcium deficiency.

diseases of bottle gourd
Calcium deficient bottle gourd showing blossom-end rot


Fruit once affected, can not be cured, however, following methods can be applied to correct the calcium deficiency and disorder may be prevented.
  • In calcium deficient soils, lime, bone-meal or eggshell fertilizer can be amended.
  • In most of the cases calcium in available in the soil, but plant can not take up because of wrong agricultural practices.
  • Too much or too low watering should be avoided and proper soil moisture should be maintained.
  • Mulching should be practiced in order to maintain the soil moisture content.
  • Avoid heavy nitrogenous fertilizer. Prefer nitrate-nitrogen over ammonium-nitrogen.
  • Maintain slightly acidic pH (6.5)

Leaf miner in bottle gourd

Host: Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd/lauki/calabash/doodhi)
Pathogen: Leaf miner (larvae of liriomyza sp.)



The disease is identified by white serpentine tunnels on the leaves. These tunnels are formed by larvae of liriomyza fly. Larvae feed upon the cell in between upper and lower cuticles of the leaves leaving characteristics mines or tunnels. Heavy infestation and eating by leaf miners reduces the photosynthetic area and ultimately reduces the yield of bottle gourd.

leaf miner in bottle gourd
Leaves of bottle gourd (lauki) showing trailing mines

If not treated, leaves may be collapsed and saprophytic fungi can grow. Fruits of bottle gourd becomes lose attractiveness.


  • Monitor the crop carefully. On first appearance of any tunnel, pick infested leaves and destroy them immediately.
  • Use yellow sticky trap to catch any adult of leaf miner fly.
  • Practice Mulching in order to check the entry of insect through the roots.
  • Neem oil (3 %) should be sprayed if more leaves are infested.

Content first created on 28-05-2021
last updated on 08-07-2021